You can filter date by fields:
By date range (from date A to date B)
By date part (based on the hour of day, day of week, month of year, etc...)
By default, filtering is by date range. If you want to filter by date part, press Date (1) and select the date part you want to filter by (e.g. Day of week).
The first option is to select one of the built-in options (1), such as Today, Last 7 days, Year to date, etc... These date ranges are dynamic. That is, they will automatically update as time passes. As such, they are very useful. For example, you could create a report with a filter for Last week. No matter when you open this report (or when it runs as part of a schedule), the filter will dynamically adjust to always show the previous week's data.
Alternatively, you can use the calendar to choose a specific start/end date. The selected dates will be fixed and will NOT changed automatically.
Less commonly, you can also filter by date part.
Let's imagine that you want to exclude Saturdays and Sundays. Simply select DAY OF WEEK, choose the is not operator, and selects Saturday and Sunday. That's all it takes!
You can apply the exact same process with other date parts, to include or exclude:
HOUR OF DAY - Specific hours of the day (such as outside working hours)
MONTH OF YEAR - Specific months of the year
QUARTER OF YEAR - Specific quarters of the year (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4)
YEAR NUMBER - Specific years